Murdha tailam includes the external application of the oil to head which includes shiroabyanga, shiroseka, shiropichu,shirobasti which are beneficial in preventing headaches, hair fall, promotes hair growth, induce sound sleep, improve the complexion of skin, improves the ability of sense organs.


The procedure of pouring thin stream of medicines in liquid form over the closed eye from a height of 4 angula is known as seka.


Smearing oil in the scalp followed by massage with specific manoeuvres is shiro abyanga. This procedure is ideal for routine practice especially in healthy person. In healthy individual oil for massage is prescribed according to prakriti and if the client has any complaints related to head ,scalp or hair specific oil may be used.


Continues pouring of decoction, oil or other liquids on forehead and then allowing it to flow over scalp using a special instrument “dharayantra” is shiroseka or shirodhara which is useful in mental stress ,hypertension, anxiety, psychological illness, insomnia ,dermatological conditions.


Lukewarm oil is poured on the head and allowed to remain these for a certain period using a leather cap fixed around the head. This is the followed by head massage. This treatment is effective in numbness of head ,insomnia, headache, psychological disorders.


Application of oil to the skin followed by massage in specific direction is well known as abhyanga in ayurveda. Abhyanga improves blood circulation, relives physical and mental fatigue ,better the musculoskeletal system functioning, clears stiffness ,induce sound sleep, delays aging, soothes skin ,abyanga cures diseases by pharmacological effect of the oils used. This manipulation of skin and muscle is advised as routine practice even for healthy person.


Application of sneha{oil/ghee} to the eyes with in a frame of black gram is called akshitarpanam,in healthy individual akshitarpanam protect the eye from degeneration due to aging process and to improve eye sight, akshitarpanam gives desired effect in clients suffering from the diseases of eye.


Karnapooranam is dropping of medicated oil into the ears which protect ear from damage ,deafness etc..


.Holding oil or decoction in mouth for certain period is gandusha.It is indicated in both healthy and diseased person. Here absorption takes place through mucus membrane.Gandusha improves strength of mandibles, nourishes mouth, prevents dryness of through, increases stability of gums and teeth, prevents dental caries, prevents toothache, prevents dental hyper sensitivity


Holding oil or decoction in buccal cavity followed by gargling for a certain period is kavala. Medicines used in kavala have both local and systemic effect. Its useful in diseases of neck, ear, mouth, throat, prevents dryness of mouth, relives tastelessness ,dryness of lips


Massaging whole body below the neck with powders of herbs in a direction opposite to orientation of air in the body is called udvarthanam.It reduces excess fat in the body ,promotes skin complexion, provides lightness of body


Applying the paste of medicinal plants added with oil or decoction is considered as lepa. This paste is kept in body for certain period and then washed off. It is useful in skin diseases, diseases of scalp, painful musculoskeletal diseases, dandruff etc..


Application of oil all over body followed by a special massage in which therapist uses their feet to apply firm pressure on clients body


Pouring of medicated liquids or oils on a diseased part or whole body below the neck is parisheka.Its done with processed milk, kashya,taila etc..


Immersing the body parts in a bathtub filled with medicated oil or decoction. This improves physical strength


Pouring of medicated liquids or oils on a diseased part or whole body below the neck is parisheka.Its done with processed milk, kashya,taila etc


Inducing perspiration by using heated round packs is shashtika shali pinda rice that grows in 60 days are is used. It is ideal in healthy ,children and vata disorders.


Application of heat and inducing perspiration by using heated packs of sand


Application of heat and there by inducing perspiration by using heated packs of specific herbal leaves is known as patra pinda sweda.This alleviates the pain and swelling, cure arthritis, effective in disorders due to degeneration of bones, peripheral neuritis, muscle sprain and strain


Unique procedure in which perspiration is induced by passing steam over the body parts by using a special instrument “nadi sveda yantra”.Herbs added with water are boiled in the instrument to generate heat. It is beneficial in pain ,swelling, improves blood circulations


Making the client to perspire, by setting his body below the neck inside a specially designed steam chamber is called bashpa sweda.It is useful in pain, oedema, hemiperesis, paralysis, muscular contractures.


.The procedure of applying warm herbal paste to diseased parts of body followed by bandaging is upanaha sveda. Its performed in limited portion of body. Application of heat by warm herbal paste induce sweating


The procedure of applying heat to the sacral or lumbar region by retaining warm medicated oil with in a specially formed frame on this area is known as kateevasthi.It is indicated in pain full low back conditions like lumbar spondylosis, lumbosacral strain, sacroileitis.


Procedure of applying heat to the cervical region by retaining warm medicated oil with a specially formed frame on this area is known as greevavasthi. This is indicated in painful conditions of cervical region like cervical spondylosis, spondylolysthesis, disc prolapse, ankylosing spondylitis,


Retaining the warm medicated oil in the painful kneejoint for certain period is known by the name januvasthi.It is effective in conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and other painful conditions of the knee


Heat is applied to the chest by retaining warm medicated oil with in a specially formed frame on this area. This is indicated in painful condition of anterior chest like costochondritis


Inducing perspiration by applying the warm paste of rice is referred as annalepana.Rice that grows in 60- days are used in this procedure. This is indicated in hemiperesis, motor neuron diseases, hemibalismus, bulbar palsy, parkinsonian syndrome, peripheral vascular diseases, emaciation, general debility


Pleasurable form of massaging by way of squeezing the muscles of lower extrimities.Here the massage is carried out with no prior smearing of the oil. It improves circulation of blood, eliminates the fatigue


Application of the herbal paste on the vertex followed by bandaging is known as thaladharana.It is indicated in anxiety ,psychological illness, hypertension, insomnia, premature graying.


Smoking for the therapeutic purposes using a specially designed instrument or pipe is known as dhumapana. It is useful in conditions like bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis


The topical application of the herbal paste to the face and keeping it undisturbed for certain period is known as mukhalepa.This therapy used to clear toxic substances in facial skin, improve the colour, complexion and smoothness of skin. Cure blakish discolouration of skin, wrinkles, pimples etc.


Procedure of bandaging the paste of herbs on eye is referred as pindi.It is useful in conjunctivitis and ulceration of eye.


The simple smearing of herbal paste on the skin surface of the eye lid avoiding eyelashes is called by name vidalaka.


The medicine in the liquid form is prepared by a special procedure of heating, and is then poured and retained for certain duration over the eyes. This improves clarity of vision, comfortable sleep, pleasant colour of the eye.


The application of medicine to the inner and outer lid of eye is called anjana. Medicines in different forms like pills, liquids, powder are used in the form of anjana.This improves eye complexion and eye sight.


Vamana is the unique procedure of eliminating the doshas from the body through the oral route by the way of inducing vomiting. To begin with the client is treated with snehana, swedana , and is followed by the induction of vomiting. The client is then subjected to special diet-samsarjanakrama to complete the procedure.


Evacuation of the fecal matter and other accumulation of dosha in the lower gastrointestinal tract through anal route are known as virechanakarma. To begin with client is treated with snehana and swedana procedure ,and is followed by inducing purgation. virechana cures various skin diseases, bronchial asthma, chronic rhinitis, indigestion, impaired appetite, gastro enteritis, acid peptic disorders etc..


Administration of medicines predominantly consisting of of herbal decoction rectal route using a special instrument called vasthi yantra is collectively referred by the name niruha vasthi also known by the name asthapana vasthi.The composition of the medicine administered includes herbal decoction, medicated oil, honey, rock salt, herbal powder. The choice of herbs depend on the disease of the client.


Administration of medicated oil or other fats through the rectal route in a prescribed dose is called as anuvasana vasthi.Anuvasana vasthi is effective in paralysis, nervous system disorders, improves physical strength etc


Uttara vasthi refers to administration of medicine through urethral route in both sex and vaginal route in female. This is indicated in urinary bladder distension, painful micturition, obstructed flow of urine, painful bladder, discoloured and concentrated urine


Administration of medicines through nasal route is called nasya.As this is the nearest root, diseases of head is easily treated by nasya.Medicated oils, powders, herbal juices are used for nasya karma. It is useful in diseases of head, neck, shoulders, eye, nose, scalp.


The surgical procedure of allowing the blood to to bleed for therapeutic purposes is known as raktamokshana.This is useful in skin diseases, bleeding disorders, stomatitis, abscess, fungal infection of dermis, scabies, lucoderma, suppurative lesions, skin eruptions, alopecia etc..


The surgical procedure of puncturing or sectioning the vein for therapeutic purposes and there by letting the blood is called siravyadha.It is indicated in skin infections, abscess, peripheral vascular disease, bleeding disorders etc..


The therapeutic procedure in which allowing the leech to suck the blood from the site of lesion is known as jalaukavacharana.Non poisonous leech are used for this purpose. This cures haemorrhoids, abscess, skin diseases, acute infection of skin etc…


The procedure of incising the skin superficially and letting the blood out is prachchana.This is specially indicated to eliminate the congestion of blood.


Procedure in which bleeding is achieved by the application of the horn of animals is shringavacharana.


Bitter bottle gourd is made into a hollow round by removing its soft core and this is used for accomplishing the blood letting .This is indicated in lesions involving deeper tissues of skin.